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Global Intelligence for the Digital Transition

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Ad exchange

Ad exchange

An ad exchange is a sales channel between publishers and ad networks that can also provide aggregated inventory to advertisers. They provide a technology platform that facilitates automated auction based pricing and buying in real-time. Ad exchanges' business models and practices may include features that are similar to those offered by ad networks.

For the purposes of the IAB Networks & Exchanges Quality Assurance Guidelines, the definition of an ad exchange excludes technology platforms that exclusively provide tools that enable direct media buying and selling between exchange participants.

Ad impression

Ad impression

Ad impressions are the count of ads which are served to a user. Ads can be requested by the user's browser (referred to as pulled ads) or they can be pushed, such as e-mailed ads.

In a formal sense, ad impressions are a measurement of responses from an ad delivery system to an ad request from the user's browser, which is filtered for robotic activity and is recorded at a point as late as possible in the process of delivery of the creative material to the user's browser -- therefore closest to the actual opportunity to be seen by the user.

Two methods are used to deliver ad content to the user

  • Server-initiated. The publisher's web content server for making requests, formatting and re-directing content
  • Client-initiated. Ad counting relies on the user's browser to perform these activities.

For organizations that use a server-initiated ad counting method, counting should occur subsequent to the ad response at either the publisher's ad server or the Web content server. For organizations using a client-initiated ad counting method, counting should occur at the publisher's ad server or third-party ad server, subsequent to the ad request, or later, in the process.

IAB's Ad Campaign Measurement Guidelines.

Ad Impression

Ad Impression

An ad impression transpires each time a consumer is exposed to an advertisement.

Ad networks

Ad networks

Ad networks provide an outsourced sales capability for publishers and a means to aggregate inventory and audiences from numerous sources in a single buying opportunity for media buyers. Ad networks may provide specific technologies to enhance value to both publishers and advertisers, including unique targeting capabilities, creative generation, and optimization. Ad networks’ business models and practices may include features that are similar to those offered by ad exchanges.

Ad recall

Ad recall

A measure of advertising effectiveness in which a sample of respondents is exposed to an ad and then at a later point in time is asked if they remember the ad. Ad recall can be on an aided or unaided basis. Aided ad recall is when the respondent is told the name of the brand or category being advertised.

Ad server

Ad server

An ad server is a web server dedicated to the delivery of advertisement. This specialization enables the tracking and management of advertising related metrics.

Adaptive Web Design

Adaptive Web Design

It varies from responsive web design in that there is not a single layout that adjust and changes to fit each device, but rather individual layouts built to fit each device. (See also Responsive Web Design)

Advertising Network

Advertising Network

A company that provides sales representation for multiple independent websites by aggregating the ad inventory and selling ads across multiple sites.

Affiliate marketing

Affiliate marketing

An agreement between two sites in which one site (the affiliate) agrees to feature content or an ad designed to drive traffic to another site. In return, the affiliate receives a percentage of sales or some other form of compensation generated by that traffic.

Anonymizer

Anonymizer

An intermediary which prevents Web sites from seeing a user’s Internet Protocol (IP) address.

API (Application Programming Interface)

API (Application Programming Interface)

An API  is a set of commands, the language that programmers or developers use to communicate with a specific piece of software or hardware.

Aspect ratio

Aspect ratio

The width-to-height ratio of a picture or video frame. TV broadcasts at a 4:3 (1.33:1) aspect ratio; digital TV will be broadcast with a 16:9 (1.78:1) ratio; and most feature films are shot in at least a 1.85:1 ratio. IMUs have an aspect ratio of 6:5 (330x 250; 336 x 280; and 180 x 150).

Attribute

Attribute

A single piece of information known about a user and stored in a behavioral profile which may be used to match ad content to users. Attributes consist of demographic information (e.g., age, gender, geographical location), segment or cluster information (e.g., auto enthusiast), and retargeting information (e.g., visited Site X two days ago). Segment or cluster information is derived from the user’s prior online activities (e.g., pages visited, content viewed, searches made and clicking and purchasing behaviors). Generally, this is anonymous data (non-PII).

Audience Measurement

Audience Measurement

The counting of unique users (i.e. audience) and their interaction with online content. At a campaign level, this service is conducted by a third party to validate that a publisher delivered what an advertiser had requested. At the industry level, this service enables media buyers to understand which brokers of online content to negotiate with to reach a specific audience.

Audience Targeting

Audience Targeting

A method that enables advertisers to show an ad specifically to visitors based on their shared behavioral, demographic, geographic and/or technographic attributes. Audience targeting uses anonymous, non-PII data.

This glossary is based on the IAB Wiki and IAB UK’s Jargon Buster. The Internet Advertising Bureau (IAB) is the trade association for online and mobile advertising. It promotes growth and best practice for advertisers, agencies and media owners.
For more information visit www.iab.net and www.iabuk.net.

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